And Now The News …

Palm Beach, Florida, Post, February 20, 2020: Goats chew their way through invasive Brazilian pepper trees in Indian River County

How do Brazilian pepper tree leaves taste? Not “ba-a-a-a-ad,” say goats blissfully munching on sprigs of the invasive plant. “They love this stuff,” said Steven Slatem of Melbourne, founder and chief executive manager of Invasive Plant Eradicators, as he chopped down a pepper tree limb with a machete and gave it to waiting goats. “It’s their favorite.” His company has a $24,000 contract with Indian River County to use his goats to help clear invasive plants, pepper trees in particular. Among the many benefits, it cuts down on the use of chemical weed killers that can pollute water and harm the environment. St. Lucie County is watching to see if goats are a good alternative before considering whether to follow suit, and Martin County is concerned about goats eating native plants. Indian River County has the goats working on two conservation areas: South Prong Slough west of Wabasso and Cypress Bend Community Preserve near Roseland. Both are former groves where invasive plants are replacing citrus trees faster than native species such as oak, maple, cypress and sabal palm trees can grow. The pepper trees are a scourge on Florida’s environment, pushing out native species on over 700,00 acres throughout the state, including sensitive habitats such as mangrove swamps along Everglades marshes and the Indian River Lagoon…

Phys.org, February 20, 2020: Over 100 eucalypt tree species newly recommended for threatened listing

The Threatened Species Recovery Hub has undertaken a conservation assessment of every Australian eucalypt tree species and found that over 190 species meet internationally recognised criteria for listing as threatened: most of these are not currently listed as threatened. Associate Professor Rod Fensham at the University of Queensland said the team assessed all 822 Australian eucalypt species against the criteria set by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM. The results have just been published in the scientific journal Biological Conservation. “Our assessment found that 193 species, which is almost one quarter (23%) of all Australian eucalypt species, meet criteria for a threatened status of Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered,” said Associate Professor Fensham. “This is very concerning as eucalypts are arguably Australia’s most important plant group, and provide vital habitat to thousands of other species. Less than one third (62) of the species that we identified are currently listed as threatened under Australian environmental law, and less than half (87) are listed under state and territory laws…

Stamford, Connecticut, Advocate, February 20, 2020: Tree removal along Connecticut highways unsightly, but necessary, DOT says

Those traveling along Route 9 in Cromwell may have been surprised to see hundreds of cut trees, including some healthy specimens, lying along both sides of the highway and wondered what work the state is conducting there. In the Middletown / Cromwell area, work is being performed near exits 19 (Route 372 / West Street) and 20 in Cromwell (which leads to Interstate 91 north and south). Thirty feet of clearance on both shoulders is the minimum requirement, which is standard across the country, according to Kevin Nursick, spokesman for the Connecticut Department of Transportation. The statewide project is estimated at $40 million, and will continue for the next four to five years, he said. Routine maintenance — for safety as well as operational efficiency — stepped up recently after the state provided more funding. For decades, lack of adequate financial support prevented much of the tree work from progressing, Nursick said. “We’re playing a lot of catch-up at this point.” Not only could the public be endangered, but road crews, as well. Nursick acknowledged the view of hundreds of felled dead and decaying trees is an unsightly one. “It’s a big issue. We’ve been all over the map in Connecticut. You could throw a dart, and we’ve probably been there or we’re going to be there,” Nursick explained. During that process, wood chips abound. “It doesn’t really look good, and I don’t think anybody is going to disagree with that,” Nursick said…

Chicago, Illinois, WLS-TV, February 20, 2020: Chicago Water Dept. tests tree-saving technology in Andersonville

More than a dozen trees in Andersonville are saved, thanks to a new pilot program the city of Chicago’s Water Department is implementing. “These mature trees are one of the most valuable things that we have to keep us healthy,” said Lesley Ames, Andersonville tree committee member. Last year, the water department was scheduled to complete routine sewage maintenance and drain removal. To do that, they’d have to cut down trees around the neighborhood, some of them more than 100 years old. “It seemed to us to be an abnormal number of trees,” Tamara Schiller said. Schiller is also a member of the tree committee and has lived in the neighborhood for more than 30 years. “There were ten trees alone on my block, so we started looking into it and said, ‘Isn’t there something else that could be done?'” Schiller said. “The more people found out about it, the more people came out into the street and wanted to find out what was going on,” Ames added. People like Ames and Schiller talked to their neighbors, their alderman and the water department to find an alternative. After months of back and forth, they found one: a CIPP or cured-in-place-pipe. “This pilot program is actually going to give us an opportunity to come up with new technology to allow us to not remove all the trees,” Water Department Commissioner, Randy Conner said…

New York City, Wall Street Journal, February 19, 2020: Federal Judge Slams PG&E Efforts to Trim Trees Near Power Lines to Prevent Wildfires

A federal judge on Wednesday lambasted PG&E Corp. PCG 8.83% for falling behind on efforts to trim trees near power lines, which are designed to reduce the risk that its equipment will spark more California wildfires. U.S. District Judge William Alsup, who oversees PG&E’s criminal probation following its conviction of safety violations after a natural-gas pipeline exploded and killed eight people in 2010, said during a heated hearing that the company is once again in violation of that probation due to its handling of the fire threat. But he stopped short of imposing a new restriction he has warned he might decide to place on PG&E—forcing the company to tie an executive bonus program entirely to safety goals. Judge Alsup said he would make that decision at a later date. “I’m going to do everything I can to protect the people of California from more death and destruction from this convicted felon,” the judge said. PG&E sought federal bankruptcy protection last year, citing more than $30 billion in liability costs tied to a series of deadly wildfires in 2017 and 2018 that killed more than 100 people. It has so far agreed to pay more than $25 billion to settle claims from fire victims, insurers and local governments and agencies…

Detroit, Michigan, WDIV-TV, February 19, 2020: Developer takes city of Taylor to court after fines for removing trees without permit climb to $160K

A case involving vacant land in Taylor and the city is heading to federal court after a developer was fined thousands for removing trees without a permit. Murray Wikol owns a parcel of land at Superior and Pardee roads. He was working on developing the space. “We were cleaning up trees, refrigerators dumped there, dead trees, diseased trees, good forestry practice done by an arborist, and we went out and did the right thing and left 155 trees,” Wikol said. However, Wikol didn’t have a permit to remove the trees. He was fined $133,000. With interest, the amount reached more than $160,000. When he refused to pay the fines, the city put the property in foreclosure. Wikol called the city’s actions oppressive. “Selective enforcement — there’s a lot of other sites where hundreds, if not thousands of trees, are being cut down, and they just are allowing it in certain areas and not in others,” he said. Wikol pointed out a space at Inkster and Eureka roads where a developer was removing trees without a permit in 2017. He said that developer received a $250 fine, and there was no listing of how many trees were taken down…

Charleston, South Carolina, Post & Courier, February 19, 2020: Whether to cut SC beach town’s trees will go to trial, judge rules

How short trees must be trimmed to restore the ocean views of beachfront owners on Sullivan’s Island will go back to trial, the S.C. Supreme Court has ruled. That could bring out the shears again on the 100-acre maritime forest that has become a scenic controversy in this reserved upscale community. And it all comes down to Hurricane Hugo 30 years ago. The court ruled Wednesday that a 1991 deed the town executed with more than 80 property owners along the dunes obligated the town to maintain their ocean views, but didn’t specify just how high or low vegetation must be cut to do it. The deeds were signed in the aftermath of Hugo as the town bought properties that had formed in front of the owners from piled-up shore-flow sand. The west end of the island, near Charleston Harbor, accretes sand diverted by the shipping channel jetties. Those dunes have now grown into a forest. The town wanted the dunes strong, to stave off devastation by another storm like Hugo. The owners wanted views. Nobody really anticipated getting lost in the woods…

Dallas, Texas, KXAS-TV, February 19, 2020: ‘Unhealthy, Damaged’ Trees Removed Along White Rock Creek, City Says; Others Cast Doubt

Dozens of trees have been cut down along the banks of White Rock Creek in recent days. Work continued Wednesday near the Cottonwood Trail, with workers using chainsaws and heavy equipment to remove the trees. Some of the trees were visibly damaged by the high winds of the EF-3 tornado that sliced a path through the area in October, but local environmentalists worry healthy trees are being cut as well. “I was shocked because I didn’t realize it was as thoroughly cleared as I had heard about,” Becky Rader, a former Dallas Park Board member said. The Dallas Park and Recreation Department issued the following statement Wednesday. In the aftermath of the October 2019 tornado and subsequent storms that heavily damaged city parks and trails including Cottonwood Trail, Dallas Park and Recreation Department authorized a contractor to remove severely damaged and downed trees on park-owned property. The work plan presented to the contractor stressed the removal of unhealthy, dying and storm-ravished trees…

Los Angeles, California, Times, February 18, 2020: In the Noah’s Ark of citrus, caretakers try to stave off a fruit apocalypse

It has been described as a Noah’s Ark for citrus: two of every kind. Spread over 22 acres, UC Riverside’s 113-year-old Givaudan Citrus Variety Collection was founded as a place to gather and study as many citrus specimens as possible — right now, the inventory numbers at over 1,000. It’s an open-air temple where innovations in irrigation, fertilization, pest control, breeding and more have allowed California’s iconic $7-billion citrus industry to thrive for over a century. When the trees blossom, or hang heavy with fruit of almost every conceivable shape and color — orange and yellow and purple; as small as a pinky nail or as large and gnarled as Grandpa’s hand — a stroll through the collection’s immaculately manicured orchards is downright heavenly. But now, an apocalypse is nigh. A bacterial infection known as citrus greening, or Huanglongbing, transmitted by the moth-like Asian citrus psyllid, has upended the agricultural world. It’s harmless to humans, but reduces trees to withered, discolored shells of their former selves that produce inedible, immature fruit…

Roanoke, Virginia, WDBJ-TV, February 18, 2020: High winds damage Virginia’s largest and tallest corkscrew willow tree

The recent high winds we’ve seen have damaged Virginia’s oldest and largest corkscrew willow tree. It sits along the Dora Trail in Pulaski. Arborists estimate it’s about 150 years old, which is very unusual for this type of tree. Typically, they only live about 50 years. Unlike your usual willow tree, its branches grow up in a corkscrew pattern instead of drooping down. Mayor David Clark said high winds upwards of 60 to 80 miles per hour caused two limbs to fall off. “Before anyone called me, I had seen it driving by. As hard as we’ve worked to try to preserve it, it made me very sad to see it fall,” Clark said. “A tree of this age is not as strong as it was once. The wind just took those out. The other parts seem to be stable for now…”

Fox News, February 18, 2020: Perfectly preserved 6,000-year-old leaf that fell from elm tree discovered by archaeologists

A leaf that fell from an elm tree more than 6,000 years ago was discovered intact by archaeologists in the United Kingdom. Scientists found the leaf — along with a selection of Stone Age tools and pottery — when they were clearing a piece of land outside of Blackpool along the coast of northern England. Lead archaeologist Fraser Brown told The Daily Mail that the finds were of national significance. “We have found extensive deposits of peat and marine clays which have helped preserve ancient plant remains and which yield information on the local vegetation, water, climate, and human activity,” he explained to the British publication…

Boise, Idaho, Post-Register, February 19, 2020: How to prune shade and evergreen trees

Question: I enjoyed your article about pruning fruit trees. Are other trees also pruned like fruit trees? Could you explain the differences?
Answer: There are some similarities, but also a lot of differences in pruning shade trees and evergreens. Other trees need a lot less pruning than fruit trees. Young trees need some help in developing major scaffold branches. The main job is to remove branches with narrow angles between the branch and the trunk. These narrow crotch angle branches are weak and are the first ones to break in a storm. I also like to leave branches on the lower part of the trunk temporarily. They supply food that increases the growth of the trunk diameter. I shorten these branches to about 6 to 12 inches and allow tufts of growth for the first two to three years. I then prune them back even with the trunk. Removing upright growing branches (water sprouts) is a good practice with most trees. Trees that naturally have upright growth of all branches should be allowed to develop naturally. There is no need to thin side branches the way we do with fruit trees. I usually remove a few branches that grow toward the center of the tree. I also remove some crossing branches unless the normal growth pattern is thick inner branch growth. It is never a good idea to shorten the height of shade and evergreen trees. Occasionally branches that are growing toward structures are removed. In this case, it is usually best to remove the entire branch back to its origin. Pruning around utility lines is dangerous and is best left to professionals. If a tree becomes too large for the area where it is planted, the best practice is to remove it and plant a smaller tree…

Nashville, Tennessee, WSMV-TV, February 18, 2020: Tree hazards to watch out for after a storm

Strong storms are notorious for causing tree damage throughout Middle Tennessee. After the initial damage is cleared, it’s time to take a closer look at surviving trees to see if there is any long-lasting damage that could cause long-term problems. Rob Kraker is an arborist with Davey Tree Expert Company. He says it’s important to keep an eye on the health of trees, especially ones around your home, sidewalks or roadways. “You wanna look for any cracking or any decaying,” says Kraker. “We also look for any mushroom growth or fractures in the roots. These are basically like the I-65 for all the nutrients for the tree.” Another very evident sign that you could have a dying tree, is large dead limbs. But not all dead limbs mean something is wrong. They have to be larger than an inch or two in diameter. “The little ones, those are not something to be worried about,” says Kraker. “It’s the ones that could potentially hurt you if you’re mowing the grass or where kids are playing.” If you’ve noticed any of these on your trees, you should call a certified arborist to come take a look. An initial consultation by Davey Tree is completely free of charge and could save you a lot of money and stress in the long run. Many times, there are steps you can take to nurse your trees back to health…

Boston, Massachusetts, WGBH-TV, February 17, 2020: Warm Winters Threaten Nut Trees. Can Science Help Them Chill Out?

In love, timing is everything, the saying goes. The same is true for fruit and nut orchards in California’s Central Valley, which depend on a synchronized springtime bloom for pollination. But as winters warm with climate change, that seasonal cycle is being thrown off. Cold is a crucial ingredient for California’s walnuts, cherries, peaches, pears and pistachios, which ultimately head to store shelves around the country. The state grows around 99% of the country’s walnut and pistachio crop. Over the winter, the trees are bare and dormant, essentially snoozing until they wake up for a key reproductive rite. “In the pistachios, the females need to be pollinated by the males trees,” says Jonathan Battig, farm manager for Strain Farming Company in Arbuckle, Calif. “Ideally, you’d like the males to be pushing out the pollen as the females are receptive.” In Battig’s orchard, one male tree is planted for every 20 female trees, though an untrained eye couldn’t tell them apart. “I know by just looking at them,” says Battig. “The buds on the males are usually more swollen.” In March or April, if all goes well, both trees will bloom so the wind carries the male trees’ pollen to the females. “For that to happen, the timing needs to line up pretty close,” he says. But several times in the last decade, that timing has been out of sync…

New York City, Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2020: We’re From the Government and We’re Here to Build a Bike Path

A handful of farmers in Ohio’s Mahoning County are getting an unpleasant lesson in government power at the hands of a local park district. Mill Creek MetroParks, a public agency governed by five unelected commissioners, wants to take over an abandoned railroad line running through about a dozen local farms for a recreational bike path. Last year, when landowners balked at the idea of strangers wandering across their properties, the park district decided to invoke eminent domain and gain right of way. “I asked the park representatives if there was any way we could negotiate on this, and they told me, ‘The time for talking is over. We’re taking this property,’ ” says Ohio state Rep. Don Manning, who tried to intervene on the farmers’ behalf. Rep. Manning, a Republican, has sponsored legislation that would limit the use of eminent domain in Ohio. The practice of government taking land for recreational uses—typically bike lanes, hiking paths and fashionable “rail trails” and “greenways”—is spreading across the country, marking a sharp and troubling expansion of eminent domain. The Takings Clause of the Constitution’s Fifth Amendment grants government the authority to seize property to be used for the public good, as long as government pays “just compensation” to the owner. Over the years, the Supreme Court has consistently expanded what is considered a “public good” to justify government seizures. In 2005, for instance, the high court upheld the taking of Susette Kelo’s waterfront home by the city of New London, Conn., so that a local development corporation could build high-end condos and a hotel. The redevelopment was intended to boost property values and increase municipal tax revenues…

Science Daily, February 13, 2020: Nitrogen-fixing trees help tropical forests grow faster and store more carbon

Tropical forests are allies in the fight against climate change. Growing trees absorb carbon emissions and store them as woody biomass. As a result, reforestation of land once cleared for logging, mining, and agriculture is seen as a powerful tool for locking up large amounts of carbon emissions throughout the South American tropics. But new research published in Nature Communications shows that the ability of tropical forests to lock up carbon depends upon a group of trees that possess a unique talent — the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. The study modeled how the mix of tree species growing in a tropical forest following a disturbance, such as clearcutting, can affect the forest’s ability to sequester carbon. The team found that the presence of trees that fix nitrogen could double the amount of carbon a forest stores in its first 30 years of regrowth. At maturity, forests with nitrogen fixation took up 10% more carbon than forests without…

San Francisco, California, Chronicle, February 13, 2020: PG&E resists judge’s tree-trimming, executive bonus proposals

Forcing Pacific Gas and Electric Co. to hire its own tree-trimming workforce, instead of relying on contractors to keep vegetation away from power lines, would not have the fire-safety benefits envisioned by a federal judge or alleviate the need for fire-prevention blackouts, attorneys for the utility say. PG&E lawyers have also pushed back on a proposal from U.S. District Judge William Alsup to prevent the company from awarding any bonuses to executives or managers unless it fulfills certain fire safety goals. The restriction would intrude on the purview of state regulators and PG&E’s bankruptcy judge, attorneys said. PG&E’s filing came in response to two recent proposals from Alsup, who is overseeing the company’s probation arising from the 2010 San Bruno pipeline explosion and has taken a strong interest in the company’s wildfire problems. Alsup in January said he might impose the tree-trimmer requirement after the company admitted it fell short on some parts of its state-mandated fire-prevention plan last year. One week later, Alsup proposed tying “all bonuses and other incentives for supervisors and above” to PG&E’s fulfillment of its state fire plan “and other safety goals…”

Cleveland, Ohio, Plain Dealer, February 13, 2020: Suspicious ‘tree crew’ questioned about ties to recent burglary: Orange Police Blotter

When two men came to her door at about 1:30 p.m. Feb. 8 to look at trees to trim, a resident, 84, became suspicious and called police. The cops had their concerns as well, since the crew somewhat matched the descriptions of suspects in a Jan. 22 burglary in which a couple in their 90s had two rings valued at over $22,000 stolen by two men who had come inside under the guise of borrowing buckets of water. Suspects with similar descriptions have also posed as utility workers in order to gain entry into roughly five homes in and around Cuyahoga County, and police in those communities were also contacted. But the man who had his wife’s rings stolen in January could not make a positive identification. Questioned was a Columbus man, 54, who was driving a truck when Orange police arrived, along with a New Carlisle man, 32, walking around the side of the woman’s house. He had active warrants in Strongsville and Butler County near Cincinnati…

Austin, Texas, KVUE-TV, February 13, 2020: 2011 Bastrop County wildfire: $5M settlement reached in case against tree company

A $5 million settlement has been reached after a tree-trimming company was accused of causing the 2011 Complex fire in Bastrop, the most destructive wildfire in Texas history. Bastrop County, Bastrop ISD, Smithville ISD and Bastrop County Emergency Services District No. 2 filed the suit in 2018 against the Asplundh Tree Expert Company for allegedly diverting crews away from a tree-trimming operation along Bluebonnet Electric Cooperative power lines. Drought conditions caused dry vegetation around the Bluebonnet lines, igniting the fires when trees fell on the power lines on Sept. 4, 2011. According to our partners at The Austin-American Statesman, the government’s attorney argued the fire had three starting points – along Schwantz Ranch Road west of Texas 21, in Circle D Ranch and Tahitian Village. The fire killed two people and burned for a month, destroying 34,000 acres and 1,700 homes. The destruction cut off five years of property tax revenue for the county, school districts and emergency services…

Oakland, California, East Bay Times, February 13, 2020: How to know when a tree must go — from a landscape pro

If a tree falls in the forest, and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound? I have no idea. I leave that question to the philosophers and physicists. But I do know that if a tree in your yard falls on your house while you’re in it, you darn well will hear it. The sound will make your heart jump from your chest like the creature in “Alien” — and your emergency savings fund will disappear faster than a puff of pollen. That scenario was precisely the one I chose to avoid when I had the old water oak tree removed from my yard this week. The old oak was nearing the end of her years, two arborists told me. Hurricanes had damaged her once regal crown. Now, where branches had once been, open cavities pocked the trunk, opening doors for decay. “We won’t know till we get up there how bad it is, but I can tell you she’s compromised,” says Alec Lantagne, a certified arborist and partner at Central Florida’s Sunbelt Tree Service. He pointed to a section of root that was beginning to lift. “This indicates instability…”

Seattle, Washington, Times, February 12, 2020: ‘They are my family’: Stolen bonsai trees mysteriously returned to Federal Way museum

These weren’t just tiny little trees, perched in dirt and presented in pretty ceramic bowls. The two bonsai trees were family members; sturdy, sage stalwarts at the Pacific Bonsai Museum in Federal Way, where they were carefully tended to for decades. So when the trees “mysteriously returned” to the museum grounds Tuesday night after being stolen last weekend, well, people wept with relief. “These trees matter,” Kathy McCabe, the museum’s executive director, said Wednesday. “They are treasures. They have such deep history. “I’m going to cry. It makes me emotional.” The trees — a Japanese black pine and a silverberry, each worth thousands of dollars — were stolen from the museum’s public display at about 7 a.m. Sunday. Security cameras captured two people crawling under the museum’s fence. It wasn’t clear what they had taken until assistant curator Scarlet Gore came around a corner a few hours later and saw the trees were gone. Word of the theft — a kidnapping, really, for some people — spread quickly. The museum’s Facebook post about it was shared 3,000 times and reached 350,000 people. The New York Times called. So did NPR and CNN…

Charlotte, North Carolina, WCNC-TV, February 11, 2020: What should you do about fallen trees after a storm?

Last week’s storms brought down trees all across the Charlotte area. WCNC Charlotte Meteorologist Iisha Scott spoke to an expert on ways you can be prepared ahead of the next storm. An Allstate agent gave this advice: • Make sure you’re getting all trees trimmed and don’t forget your regular maintenance; • Keep an eye on older trees because they fall easily; • Make sure you have proper insurance coverage and an adequate amount of coverage. And while storms bring out a sense of community, they also bring out scammers. The North Carolina’s Attorney Generals’ office wants to remind you to: • Get a written contract that lists all the work to be performed, its costs and completion date; • Make sure the company is insured. You can contact the insurer directly; • Don’t pay upfront…

House Beautiful, February 12, 2020: These Gorgeous Eucalyptus Trees Create a Rainbow Effect as Bark Peels

At first glance, you might just think someone got a little carried away and paintedthose tree barks. Reasonable guess, but what if I told you that those colorful streaks formed naturally? And that these colorful trees are actually real!? Not all bark is brown, my friends, and these multi-colored timbers are here to prove it! Eucalyptus deglupta trees, also known as “rainbow trees” or “Mindanao gum trees,” are tropical evergreens known for their colorful, rainbow-like bark. Every season, these trees shed their old rinds, revealing a new variegated layer of oranges, blues, and greens. It’s magical, not to mention beautiful, especially since the tree’s shelling will never look exactly the same over the years. The large evergreens (which can grow up to 250 feet tall) commonly grow in tropical forests in the Philippines, New Guinea, and Indonesia where sunlight and rainfall are ample. However, they can grow in certain parts of the United States with similar conditions, too. Eucalyptus deglupta trees have been spotted in Hawaii and the southern parts of California, Texas, and Florida. However, as the U.S., is not the tree’s native environment (and the ones here were planted by seeds brought from other parts of the world), they typically only reach heights of 100 to 125 feet…

Syracuse, New York, Post-Gazette, February 12, 2020: Syracuse plans to turn down city heat by planting 70,000 trees

Syracuse is trying to ease the impacts of two of the nation’s biggest problems – income inequality and climate change – through a simple idea: Planting trees. Lots of trees. The city today is releasing an ambitious urban forestry master plan that calls for planting 70,000 trees over 20 years. That would increase the land area covered by tree leaves by more than 1,600 acres, resulting in a third of the city draped in shade. “Urban forests are our first line of defense in a hotter, more unpredictable climate,” says the city’s draft plan. “They function as an outdoor air conditioner and filter, water control system, wind barrier, anger and mood management program, beautification initiative, and even sunblock.” Syracuse and New York state are getting warmer. A Syracuse.com review of climate data shows the city’s normal temperature is 1 degree higher than it was from the 1950s through the 1970s. A 2015 study by several New York state agencies said New York state has warmed 2.4 degrees since 1970…

 

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2 thoughts on “And Now The News …

  1. Rest In Peace Sweet Tripp Halstead. No more hurting. You can go play in the Lords garden. We love you. We will miss you. My heart breaks for a little boy I never met. Prayers for his family. 😭😭🙏🏻

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